Particle Properties

How do string vibrations produce particle properties? The simplest property of a particle, is its mass.From Einstein's equation, E = mc2, mass and energy are interchangeable. They have a fixed exchange rate, given by the speed of light times itself, c2.

4.3 million tons of matter converted into Energy and Light every second from the
sun's life-sustaining heat. Reactors on earth may be like the sun harnessing
Einstein's equation to provide an limitless supply of energy.

Energy therefore is produced from mass.
However Einstein's equation works well in reverse, in which mass is produced
from energy, and that's the way in which string theory uses Einstein's equation.
The mass of a particle in string theory is nothing but the energy of its vibrating string.

String theory explains why one particle is heavier than another. The string of the heavier particle is vibrating faster and more furiously than the string constituting the lighter particle. Faster and more furious vibration means higher energy, and higher energy translates, via Einstein's equation, into greater mass. Conversely, the lighter a particle is, the slower and less frenetic is the string vibration. A particle like a photon is a string with the most placid and gentle vibrational pattern.

The particle's, other properties its electric charge and its spin, are through subtle features of
the string's vibrations. Compared with mass, these features are harder to describe
nonmathematically. The vibration pattern is the particle's fingerprint.


Formerly every vibration pattern in the boson string theory had a whole number spin: Spin-0, spin-1, spin-2, and so on. However particles of matter like electrons and quarks don't. They have a fractional amount of spin, spin-1/2. This revealed a perfect balance, a symmetry, between the vibration patterns with different spins in the modified string theory. The new vibration patterns arose in pairs whose spin values differed by half a unit. For every vibration pattern with spin 1/2 there was an associated vibration pattern with spin-0. For every vibration pattern of spin-1, there was an associated vibration pattern of spin-1/2, and so on.

Integer and half-integer spin was named supersymmetry, or superstring theory.
This explains the universe in detail. Among the vibration patterns that strings can make,
there must be patterns whose properties agree with those of the known particle species.
String theory would provide the first fundamental
explanation for why the universe is the way it is.

String Vibrations


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