Philosophy of Space and Time
of space and time is the branch
of philosophy concerned with the issues surrounding the character of space
and time. The philosophy of space and time was both an inspiration for and
a central aspect of early analytic philosophy. The basic issues were whether
or not time and space exists independently
of the mind, whether they exist independently
of one another. What accounts for time's apparently unidirectional flow,
whether times other than the present moment of NOW exist. There questions
about the nature of identity particularly the nature of identity over time.
and medieval thoughts.
Plato, identified time with the period of motion of the heavenly bodies, and space as that in which things come to be. Aristotle, in Book of Physica defined time as the number of change with respect to before and after, and the space of an object as the innermost motionless boundary of that which surrounds it.
contrast to ancient Greek philosophers who believed that the universe
had an infinite past with no beginning, medieval philosophers and theologians
developed the concept of the universe having a finite past with a beginning.
This view was inspired by the creation belief shared by the three Abrahamic
religions: Judaism, Christianity and Islam. The Christian philosopher,
John Philoponus, presented the first such argument against the ancient
Greek notion of an infinite past. His were adopted by many including,
most notably, early Muslim philosopher, Al-Kindi ; the Jewish philosopher,
Saadia Gaon ; and the Muslim theologian, Al-Ghazali .